Sunday, 5 June 2016

As the Hay Festival ends

The Hay Festival comes to an end today. This is the first year I have been since 1996, when I heard Sebastian Faulks discussing his latest novel Birdsong. I have been for two days this time, and have greatly enjoyed the atmosphere, the talks and discussions (some of them superb, others decidedly quirky); I like the relaxed feel of the Festival, and the scope for whole families to come and immerse themselves in a place where (of all places in Britain) books count.  Yes, it has been good to be back in Hay, good to be surrounded by bookshops, to see the swifts above Hay Castle and the late sun on the Black Mountains.

Taking in this view while waiting for the bus back to Hereford, I remembered that, ten years even before my first visit to the Festival, I had once been for a memorable walk along the Olchon Valley, the other side of Hay Bluff. I wrote about this walk at the time, and only the other day turned up the typescript. I don’t think it ever appeared in print, so here it is now. If I had been blogging in those days, it might have been an early and rather self-conscious post to my blog – but (hard to believe) the World Wide Web had not been invented then.

A Short Walk in the Olchon Valley (1986)
At 10pm the night before the great Olchon Valley parish walk, I was stuck in a traffic jam trying to get out of London. The rain was dreadful – real Wye Valley weather in the West end – and my only consolation as I sat wondering what time I should be home was that the Black Mountains hike next day was bound to be cancelled.  I should have known better.

At 2pm the following afternoon I was shouldering my rucksack and setting off from Red Darren car park (in truth little more than an improvised lay-by) in pursuit of some thirty friends, most of whom had already done a full morning’s walk from the tail of the Cat’s Back down to Longtown – aptly named – and up the mountain lane that climbs the NW side of the valley. The weather was ideal, dry and not too windy. I only got my feet wet once, and that was when fording the Olchon Brook, a very respectable stream that flows into the Monnow just north of Pandy. We were to follow the Olchon almost to its source behind Hay Bluff, climbing up an old track (sunken in places) that led to the top of the pass and then over and down into Powys.

It must have been along this same track that Vavasour Powell, the celebrated Puritan preacher, came on his visits to the dissenting congregation who had made the Olchon Valley famous as a centre for the Baptist cause as early as 1650. These Baptists practised immersion in the Olchon Brook, and the names of their first ministers, Thomas Watkins and Thomas Parry (Llanigon) are still honoured in the district. The ‘gentle flock of Olchon’ as they were known, met openly at first in each other’s houses, holding services in Welsh and English; after 1660, however, they were harassed and had to meet secretly before persecution drove them out of the valley altogether and westwards into Wales. Wherever they went (and some finally settled as far west as Rhydwilym in Dyfed) they spread the Baptist cause that had been nurtured in the barns and cottages of the Olchon Valley – the same neat buildings we could see from the ridge of the Black Hill.

Some people hold that walking should be a solitary activity, and jib at the thought of being part of a crowd on a mountain. I have a certain sympathy with this view, but the fact is we weren’t a crowd: we soon spread out, and one of the pleasantest things about such walks is the ebb and flow of conversation as you catch up the person in front, fall back to wait for someone behind, or simply measure your pace alone. Thus, in the course of the afternoon, I spoke with a hospital physician about geriatric care, and negotiated with a small boy who wanted to carry home in his anorak pocket the remains of a sheep’s skeleton; I discussed the changing shape of boiled sweets in Britain and the diversity of Welsh devotional poetry, swapped stories about the perils of automatic doors on tube trains; argued over the correct name of the hill behind Ludlow that we could see – just – in the distance (Clee Hill, The Clees, Brown Clee; which was it? We never agreed) and startled a late lark in the heather.

The varieties of clothing and gear worn by those walking was always a good topic of conversation. The joining instructions had advised, with mandarin understatement, that ‘something rather waterproof is indicated’. In the event, green wellies, dubbined boots and ladies’ tennis shoes all made it to the top and down again, although the owner of the tennis shoes had to be given portage over a ford by two members of the PCC.  A man who rather resembled Clegg from Last of the Summer Wine or the whipper-in of a Northumbrian beagling pack was kind enough to compliment me on my turn-out; he did not fail, however, to remark the trouble I’d had preventing my thick walking stockings from falling down – an embarrassment I hadn’t experienced since early days at school. If only I’d remembered my headmaster’s advice: “Never go out without your garters, boy!”

We were off the Cat’s Back, that narrow ridge leading down from the Black Hill’s summit, by 5.30pm, and home an hour later. It had been a perfect walk, the ideal antidote to London traffic jams and all other hazards of the way we live (most of us) now. The youngest member of the party was four; the oldest – well, much older than that, anyway.

And why did we do it? I suppose you could say because the vicar asked us to, because the church windows needed money spent on them again; but we did it also for the company, for the change and for the pleasure of discovering a very beautiful valley few people ever explore. We went for the exercise, we went for the view, we went for the supper afterwards. All in all, you could say we went for the sheer heaven of it.

                                                               *     *     *
I have reprinted this piece in memory of two people who had a great influence on me and who, though they belonged to different generations and different traditions (one Welsh Baptist, the other Church in Wales), liked and admired each other: the Rev. Tomos Richards and Canon James Coutts. Each of them contributed, in different ways, to the writing of ‘A Short Walk in the Olchon Valley’.

Adrian Barlow

[Illustration: The Olchon Valley, looking toward Hay Bluff; © Copyright Jerry Fryman and licensed for reuse under this Creative Commons Licence

Saturday, 4 June 2016

Edward Wilson: pipe smoking and Polar exploration

To The Wilson, Cheltenham’s Art Gallery and Museum, to celebrate the acquisition of a fairly ordinary-looking smoker’s pipe.  And rightly so, for this pipe belonged to one of the town’s most distinguished sons: the Polar explorer, doctor, artist and naturalist, Edward Adrian Wilson (1872-1912). More than this, research into the pipe’s history has shed light not just on the complex character of Wilson himself but also on the importance of pipe smoking to those who chose to boldly go where no man had gone before in the early years of the twentieth century.

Made of polished rose briar, the pipe is of the ‘Billiard’ style. A silver band protecting the joint where shank meets stem is idiosyncratically engraved with Wilson’s monogram EW (See illustration below). The letters GBD, stamped both on the wooden shank and on the silver band, identify the pipe’s maker as the Paris-based firm Ganneval, Bondier and Donninger. The band, however, is stamped with London hallmarks, dating it to 1900. The initials AO, also stamped onto the silver band, identify A. Oppenheimer & Co. as the London distributor of the pipe.

It’s more than thirty five years since last I smoked a pipe myself. Like me, Wilson had taken it up at university: an 1893 Cambridge photo shows him smiling, boatered and bow-tied, with pipe in mouth. Certainly he smoked one for most of the 1890s and not even TB, severe enough to force him to go to Davos for treatment, put him off for long. He hated the forced inactivity of the regime his Swiss doctors imposed, and was jubilant when eventually allowed to take up his pipe again. ‘SMOKED ALL DAY!’ he recorded in his diary.

Many pipemen, I suppose, have a love-hate relationship with their pipes, and this was certainly true of Wilson. He was a man of extraordinary gifts and interesting contradictions. He used to give up smoking for Lent and would go up into the woods above Cheltenham, to throw his pipe away in a gesture of finality. But when Lent was over, back he’d go to retrieve the pipe and start smoking once again. Not so surprising, perhaps: pipe smokers hate to be separated from their pipes and will go to great lengths to be reunited with them. Robert Graves, in Goodbye to All That, has a story about the Everest mountaineer George Mallory, who

once did an inexplicable climb on Snowdon.  He had left his pipe on a ledge, half-way down one of Lliwedd precipices, and scrambled back by a short cut to retrieve it, then up again by the same route. No one saw what route he took, but when they came to examine it the next day for the official record, they found an overhang nearly all the way. By a rule of the Climbers’ Club climbs are never named in honour of their inventors, but only describe natural features. An exception was made here. The climb was recorded as follows: “Mallory’s Pipe. A variation on Route 2; see adjoining map. This climb is totally impossible. It has been performed once, in failing light, by Mr G.H.L. Mallory.”

There are plenty of photographs of pipe-smoking explorers and mountaineers seen with pipe in hand or clamped between teeth. Look at any photo of Capt. Scott smoking: you’ll probably see he has an identical-looking pipe to the one that now belongs to The Wilson. Just how much his pipe mattered to him, Scott himself explained in the South Polar Times, May 1902:

The day’s work is nearly over; but a solitary joy remains; throughout your recent adventures you have always kept your mind’s eye on the pipe, tobacco and matches that are distributed about your person [….] The solace of that pipe […] is a thing that only the true smoker can appreciate.

George Seaver, Wilson’s first biographer, claims Wilson didn’t smoke while on Discovery, and Scott himself referred to him as ‘a non-smoker’. Not smoking during the expedition (especially if he travelled with today’s pipe, probably presented to him on departure) would have been a severe test of his resolve, for other members of the team all puffed away with gusto. No wonder Discovery had to set sail with 1,300lbs. of tobacco on board: smoking mitigated the extreme cold and dulled the appetite.  Wilson did, however, return to his pipe once back in Britain. Some of his time after 1904 was spent in the Scottish Highlands researching the causes of disease in grouse. He reported that rubbing his socks with pipe tar helped keep the mosquitoes away from his ankles; no doubt wreathing himself in tobacco smoke offered further defence.

I suspect it was this presentation pipe that he smoked in Scotland. Although it comes in a well-worn and much-used leather carrying pouch, the pipe itself has has not been heavily smoked: there is only one tooth mark on the stem. There is, however, some slight pitting on the edge of the bowl. This suggests to me that Wilson was accustomed to knock out his pipe on a convenient stone or rock in order to dislodge the dottle. Seaver claims that by 1908 Wilson had lost all taste for a pipe, and never hankered after it again. Certainly this pipe wasn’t one retrieved from the Antarctic after Wilson’s death: it surfaced in an auction of contents from Hooton Pagnell Hall, where his brother Bernard (who managed this Yorkshire estate) had accumulated a personal collection of memorabilia associated with Edward. One can surmise that the pipe came to Bernard from Oriana, Edward’s widow; after his death, she distributed mementoes of her late husband to the family.

I have some fellow-feeling for a man who gives up his pipe altogether; I also have a sneaking admiration for those who carry on, often in the face of opposition from family and friends. Scott of the Antarctic never gave up – until forced to do so in those latter days, when tobacco as well as food had run out in the hut where he finally died, his arms cradling Wilson.  I know of few more touching letters than the last one Scott received from his wife, Kathleen, before his death:

How can I guess how things will be with you when you get this… But oh dearie I am full of hope. My brave man will win – with his own right hand and with his mighty arm hath he gathered himself the victory. Now don’t forget to brush your hair – and don’t smoke so much and altogether you’re a ducky darling and hurray for you!

Adrian Barlow

[Notes: Robert Graves’ account of Mallory’s Pipe comes from Goodbye to All That, (1929; London: Penguin Books, 1960) pp.35-36.  George Seaver writes about Wilson’s struggles to give up smoking in Edward Wilson of the Antarctic (London: John Murray, 1933) pp. 30, 49, 55, 88 and 161. Kathleen Scott’s last letter to her husband (found when his body was recovered a year after his death) was made public in 2012. You can read the full text of the letter here.

[Illustrations: (i, ii and iii) Edward Wilson’s pipe, now in The Wilson, Cheltenham Museum and Art Gallery, reproduced by permission of The Cheltenham Trust and Cheltenham Borough Council; (iv) detail from the west window of Binton Parish Church, near Stratford-upon-Avon, depicting Captain Robert Falcon Scott and colleagues about to set off the for South Pole (Wilson on right of image). The window was designed by John Lisle and made by C.E. Kempe and Co., 1915

My thanks to Ann-Rachael Harwood, Curator of Human History at The Wilson, and to Gill Poulter, Heritage and Exhibitions Director, Dundee Heritage Trust, for their help with this article.

Text and photograph iv © the author.

Sunday, 13 March 2016

From Middle Earth to Banana Moon

Wake Green Road, Birmingham 13, connects the urban village of Moseley with what was once real country. It starts approximately where Moseley station (now defunct and disappeared) once stood – and climbs steadily away from the city for a couple of miles until it ends abruptly at a big roundabout. Birmingham was once surrounded by Greens, most of which survive only by name: Yardley Green, Bordesley Green, Hall Green – the southern suburbs encompass them all. I remember those names well, for I was born in that part of Birmingham, but I had never heard of Wake Green until last year.

These days, however, walking the Wake Green Road is something I do quite often. Roads that lead off it - Mayfield and Hayfield, Belle Walk, Green Lane and The Grove - conjure a rustic, even an arcadian, idyll.  And though today this is largely well-heeled commutable Birmingham, it is surprising how quickly one can come across real rus in outer urbe. Only yesterday Sebastian and I (Seb is my travelling companion on these Wake Green perambulations – Pevsner’s favourite word particularly apt: see below) watched from a footbridge as SUVs and Ford Fiestas on the homeward leg of the school run parted the unexpectedly deep waters of a ford crossing the River Cole. The drowned rat-run? I hadn’t expected to see that; not in Birmingham, not in 2016. Then, once we’d left the ford and followed the riverbank a little way, we came across a leat feeding an old millpond; and next to the millpond, a watermill. There has been a mill here for nearly five hundred years, and it is still standing, still working. Which is more than can be said for Moseley Station.

Today Seb and I are walking the whole length (almost) of Wake Green Road. We begin outside the Hungry Hobbit café, well-named because just nearby J.R.R. Tolkien spent the most impressionistic years of his childhood. Here he lived in a small house on the edge of Birmingham and gentility, with Sarehole Mill in front of him and Moseley Bog behind. This was Tolkien’s Middle Earth. Recent critics have stressed that his experiences on the Somme in 1916 were central to the imaginative landscape he created and peopled first in The Hobbit (1937) and then in The Lord of the Rings trilogy (1954-5). This may be so, not least because soldiers in trenches on the western front did spend their time living in holes, just like the hobbits. But it was the curious hidden worlds of Sarehole Mill and Moseley Bog that were Tolkien’s secret domain. He himself recalled it as

a kind of lost paradise .... There was an old mill that really did grind corn with two millers, a great big pond with swans on it, a sandpit, a wonderful dell with flowers, a few old-fashioned village houses and, further away, a stream with another mill. I always knew it would go – and it did.

Sarehole Mill became Sandeman’s Mill in Tolkien’s fictional Hobbiton. Here was a world in which he became so immersed that he described himself as ‘a hobbit in all but size; liked gardens, trees and unmechanised farmland; smoked a pipe and liked good plain food!’ There has been much discussion of the origins of the word ‘hobbit’. Tolkien claimed that he simply made it up; but can I be the only person to wonder whether, writing in the 1930s, he knew that some of the houses being built in and around Wake Green Road were designed by a Birmingham architect, Holland Hobbis? Just coincidence, you’d say?

Many of the houses hereabouts are textbook suburban mock-Tudor, and Tolkien’s own home was a then-newly-built half-timbered cottage. When Louis MacNeice was a young Classics lecturer at Birmingham University, he wrote with some asperity about ‘half-timbered houses with lips pressed / So tightly and eyes staring at the traffic.’ With condescension characteristic of the 1930s poets, he added:

In these houses men as in a dream pursue the Platonic forms
With wireless and cairn terriers and gadgets approximating to the fickle norms
And endeavour to find God and score one over the neighbour
By climbing tentatively upward on jerry-built beauty and sweated labour. (‘Birmingham’, 1933)

To the wireless and cairn terriers, add privet hedges and monkey-puzzle trees: Wake Green Road has plenty of these relics of respectability. Seb and I meet a gardener, feeding the roots of her hedge with leaf mould. ‘I’m doing the Council out of their £35,’ she tells us cheerfully. (£35 is what Birmingham City Council charges to empty your brown garden bins). The hedge is tall and dense enough to hide completely what lies behind, so the gardener invites us into her garden, where the first surprise is that the original house has entirely disappeared – to be replaced by a block of 1960s maisonettes. But the garden itself is wonderfully preserved. Even its spinney has survived: a miniature secret wood with a winding path through it. Seb wants to explore. Behind the new building, the lawn of the old house has survived, large enough for a good game of cricket; there’s a fine cedar tree too.

Cricket is still popular along Wake Green Road. Opposite the rather dramatic Victorian buildings of Moseley School, the Pickwick Cricket Club has its playing field. Passing it on dark January afternoons I used to get the impression of hardy fieldsmen braving the cold and encircling a batsman to stop him lofting a ball over the boundary and into Moseley Bog. What I actually saw were flapping white plastic sacks, tied to the stakes that roped off the cricket square. They’ll be gone soon: the groundsman has already been out giving the wicket its first trim. I look forward to watching cricket there with Seb, and I’d like to think the players (true to the traditions of the original Pickwick Club) will be sporting bright blue blazers with embossed brass buttons. But I’m not sure cricketers wear blazers any longer.

Now well on our way, between Billesley Lane and Cotton Lane we pass a row of six houses which are a joy: I never tire of looking at them. The first is being restored, and it’s a beauty of Birmingham Edwardian – as are four of the other five. There’s a hint of Charles Rennie Mackintosh in each of them, and an Arts and Crafts dash of Mackay Baillie Scott; these houses might be at home in the quieter reaches of Port Sunlight or Letchworth; Garden City architecture, in fact. The sixth is equally interesting, but quite different. It belongs more to Norfolk – Blisland rather than Bourneville – with its Dutch gable, discreet tile-and-flint decoration, its muted redbrick rather than the white pebbledash of its next-door neighbours. The Edwardians who built their homes here knew good architecture and good architects when they saw them.

And now our journey nears its end. As we get closer to Moseley itself, the houses are grander, with turrets and lanterns, weather vanes and ex-stables with lofts above. Louis MacNeice was wrong about one thing: the houses he’d have seen along Wake Green Road were certainly not jerry-built. Their walls show no inclination to come tumbling down.

At last we reach our destination, Banana Moon, the excellent Nursery where I have to deliver Seb. He trots in happily, glad to be here and out of his buggy, ready for an afternoon with his friends. Grandad is dismissed, and my walk along the Wake Green Road is over.

Adrian Barlow

[illustrations: (i) Wake Green Road street sign – a characteristic late 19th century Birmingham design (ii) Moseley School

Text and photographs © the author

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Monday, 25 January 2016

Alan Bennett and Tennyson in Poets' Corner

Poets’ Corner seems to be popular this month. The Times Literary Supplement has just published a provocative item suggesting we have simply forgotten many of the writers commemorated there. ‘How many visitors to Poets’ Corner today,’ asks NB, the back-page columnist of the TLS, ‘recognise the name of Thomas Shadwell, whose monument was raised circa 1700?’ Well, as it happens, I do. Shadwell has a cameo appearance in Dyden’s Dunciad, and I memorised the following couplet for my finals, hoping it might come in usefulas at last it has done:

The rest to some faint meaning make pretence,
            But Sh——— never deviates into sense.

Meanwhile The London Review of Books has been publishing extracts from Alan Bennett’s diary of the past twelve months. Last September, we now learn, Bennett was recalling a conversation he had had in 1995 with the then Dean of Westminster Abbey, Michael Mayne. The Dean had asked Bennett (who at the time was making a documentary about the Abbey for the BBC) whether he thought Philip Larkin and J.B. Priestley deserved to be commemorated in Poets’ Corner. Bennett admits that while he considered Larkin ‘an obvious yes on the strength of Church Going, let alone the rest’, he’d been lukewarm about Priestley. Today Priestley still isn’t there, and no doubt has now missed his chanceabout which Bennett confesses he is filled ‘with regret and self-reproach’.

Deciding Abbey business in an informal way that has irreversible consequences echoes a letter sent by an earlier Dean, George Granville Bradley, to Charles Eamer Kempe, the celebrated stained glass designer, in March 1894:

My dear Kempe
   You see I treat you as an old Rugbeian & dock you of the ‘Mr’!
   I am sure that I may privately ask your opinion on a matter in which I rather distrust my own judgment - & Somers Clark, whom I sometimes surreptitiously consult is away.
   We are laying down a gravestone over Tennyson.
   It is to be very simple  - black Irish marble.

   I thought a plain cross
Then the name
Lord Tennyson
born August &c
died October &c
& just a wreath of laurels below.
   Lady T rather likes to have the laurel wreath on the +. but wd not that suggest to the ordinary mind the couronne d’epines [crown of thorns] rather than the laureate ship?
   I told her that I should take some good counsellor’s opinion.
   It will be of course in a much trodden part of Poets’ Corner i.e. the S transept close to Chaucer’s monument.
   I should much value a hint from you & I am sure that you will forgive me.
   Mr Pearson has been very ill – is better; but still poorly. I may see him on Wednesday & it wd be a comfort to have my own views strengthened by a better guide than myself.
   I shall not leave here till after post comes in on Wednesday morning – unless something unforeseen happens. I’ve no vehicle or wd. drive down.
   Forgive me.
   Very truly yours
   G G Bradley

Dean Bradley (1821-1903) was an interesting character. Like Kempe, he had been educated at Rugby, and had returned to teach there while Kempe was a pupil. He later became Headmaster of Marlborough, then Master of University College, Oxford, and was finally appointed Dean of Westminster in 1881. Up to that point he had been best known for his revised version of a school textbook on Latin Prose Composition, always referred to as ‘Bradley’s Arnold’. Hence, when his appointment was announced in the press, Punch published a caricature, showing Bradley as a butterfly rising above what looks like a church with a mortar board atop its steeple, but actually has the name Marlborough just legible on its roof. Bradley had a reputation as a progressive and reforming Headmaster, but on the ground lies a bundle of birch twigs wrapped around with a piece of cloth on which appears the word CHRYSALIS. The caption, punning both on his notoriety among schoolboys – his name a metonym for enforced translation of passages from English into Latin – and on his elevation to the deanery at Westminster, echoes Peter Quince’s astonishment at seeing Bottom the weaver transformed into an ass: ‘BLESS THEE! THOU ART TRANSLATED!’

Bradley and Tennyson had been a two-man mutual admiration society: when the poet sent his son Hallam to Marlborough, he declared that he had sent him ‘not to Marlborough but to Bradley’. Bradley for his part returned the compliment by naming his daughter Emily Tennyson Bradley. So it isn’t surprising that he took such a personal interest in designing an appropriate memorial to go over the resting place of Queen Victoria’s favourite poet.

His letter to Kempe is revealing. When he cheerfully admits that he sometimes consults the architect and Egyptologist Somers Clarke surreptitiously, he opens up a world of Cathedral intrigue recognizable to anyone who has read Trollope’s Barchester novels. The logical person to have advised the Dean was the Abbey’s Surveyor of the Fabric.  In 1894 this was John Loughborough Pearson, but he – as the letter explains – had been seriously ill. But even with Pearson indisposed and Somers Clarke away, Bradley might have consulted his friend, the architect George Frederick Bodley. After all, it was Bradley who had brought in Bodley at University College to build a new Master’s Lodging (1879); and when Pearson died three years later, it was Bodley whom Bradley appointed to succeed him. But perhaps it was from previous dealings with Bodley and Pearson that Bradley had discovered it was useful to have a second, discreet, architectural ear to bend when occasion required – as here, in the matter of Tennyson’s tomb. Perhaps, too, he was being cautious in case Bodley suggested a wholly different (and much more elaborate) design; he had already designed a fine memorial brass tombstone in the Abbey for the architect George Edmund Street, who had died in 1881. Whatever the reason, the opening and closing sentences of his letter suggest this was the first time Bradley had consulted Kempe confidentially on a question of religious symbolism.

Attached to the letter, in the Kempe Trust archives, is a small pencil sketch on a torn-off piece of Whatman’s fine wove Original Turkey Mill paper. The sketch is in Kempe’s own hand, and shows two ideas for an appropriate Poets’ Corner tombstone. While both develop the Dean’s original idea of a cross and a laurel wreath, neither incorporates the stricken widow’s wish for a wreath to be placed over the cross. How Kempe replied and whether he even sent any sketches to Westminster is not known; but in any case Tennyson’s memorial stone, as seen today, displays no cross, and no wreath, just name and dates. The final decision seems to have been a compromise of a peculiarly Anglican kind. Neither Dean nor widow got their way – and all were satisfied.

Adrian Barlow

·      For the discussion of Poets’ Corner, see J.C., NB, TLS 22.1.16, p.32
·      Alan Bennett recalls his conversation with the Dean in his diary for 2015, now published in the London Review of Books, vol.38, no. 1 (7 January 2016) p.6
·      Tennyson’s tombstone can be seen in an extract from Bennett’s documentary about Westminster Abbey here, on YouTube.
·      Tennyson’s comment about sending his son to Bradley not to Marlborough is quoted in Niall Hamilton, A History of the Chapel of St. Michael and All Angels, Marlborough College, Wiltshire, (1986), p.17

[illustrations: (i) The Punch cartoon (Vol. 81, 1 October 1881, p.154), drawn by Linley Sambourne; (ii) inside pages of Bradley’s letter to Kempe (31.3.1894); (iii) Kempe’s pencil sketches for Tennyson’s tombstone (1894). Illustrations (ii) and (iii) © Kempe Trust.

I first published a shorter version of this post, entitled ‘Kempe and the Case of Tennyson’s Tomb’, on the Kempe Trust website.

I have written about Westminster Abbey twice before: